Dengue Fever and West Nile Virus

Breakout of Dengue Fever Increases

In 2011, Key West suffered a breakout of Dengue Fever, which is spread by mosquitoes. This was the first breakout in the U.S. Puerto Rico is another place where Dengue Fever is a large problem. Now, Dengue Fever has hit the continental US, much of South America, Greece, many countries in southern Asia and Africa.This disease has become a world wide problem.

The mosquitoes pass the dengue fever to a person and to each other. At this point authorities state 5% of Key West residents have been affected. There is some chance that this fever will spread in the more tropical areas of the United States.

The female Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are the primary vectors for the spread of the fever. Biologists have actually created a mosquito killing bacteria to fight Dengue fever.

Key West literally placed thousands of mosquito traps, which covered hundreds of acres as they fought these mosquitoes. People are most susceptible to getting bit at dawn and dusk.
FDA Approved Test for Dengue Fever

The FDA announced on June 21, 2012, that the CDC has developed a new test to detect dengue fever. The test is called CDC-DENV-1-4 Real Time RT PCR Assay. This test will help diagnosis the fever within 7 days of when the symptoms first appear. All four types of dengue fever can be diagnosed utilizing this test.
Female Aedes aegypti Mosquito
This mosquito bite causes Dengue fever.
This mosquito bite causes Dengue fever.
Dengue fever Symptoms

Dengue fever is a viral infection that is debilitating but not usually fatal in otherwise healthy people. It can be diagnosed by a blood test. There is no vaccine to prevent Dengue fever at this time.

Once bitten it takes 6-7 days for the disease to develop. The symptoms are fevers as high as 104-105, severe headache behind the eyes, rash, swollen lymph nodes, vomiting muscle and joint pain with general malaise. The severity of the joint pain has given dengue the name “breakbone fever.” The rash appear 3-4 days after the beginning the fever. The illness may last up to 10 days but full recovery often takes a month. Children and young adults have about a 5% death rate

Typhoid Fever Together with Dengue Fever: the Treacherous Tandem

The incidence of dengue fever is again on the rise in the Philippines. As of today, the number of victims has surpassed the number of victims last year for the same period. There has been installed a device to trap mosquitoes developed by the Science and Technology department of the Philippines but it seems that it has no significant effect in controlling the disease. One factor that this is so could be the number of typhoons that had visited the country and the extent of flood that had been brought about by heavy rains. Dengue fever is listed as one of the diseases that is triggered by climate change.

Mosquito traps no doubt lessen the population of mosquitoes, the vectors of dengue virus. However, they have nothing to do with the virus. So far no vaccine has been developed against the virus. One reason could be that virus mutate so fast that a vaccine developed would be outdated within six months. Another reason could be that the framework used in developing treatments for dengue virus is inappropriate.

I suspect that the dengue virus is amenable to chelation. That is, an agent can bind with and remove the virus. Conventional medicine says that there is no control against the virus. However, the administration of vitamin C and supplements containing high level of chlorophyll has shown effectiveness in mitigating dengue fever if not controlling it. Vitamin C is a weak chelator, but a chelator nevertheless that can chelate out virus. Chlorophyll is a chelate of magnesium, that is, it contains a good amount of magnesium. This mineral is also a weak chelator.
A Filipino Internist and Chelationist

In March 2012, Dr. Arturo V. Estuita, MD, a Filipino internist and chelationist found that hepatitis B can be controlled by infusion chelation therapy. He administered this therapy on a fellow who had some 8 million virus in his body. In 8 to 10 chelation sessions, the virus count went down to 450,000, he told me. Now, the virus count went down to 10,000 virus in which case the virus is virtually harmless after a total of 35 chelation sessions, Dr. Estuita told me the last week of August this year. There is a new gadget that can give a virus count in four to five days. As news of his clinical results spread, some victims of hepatitis B came over for chelation and some 3 patients more had it.

In middle of May 2013 someone from a country in Europe came over to the Philippines for hepatitis treatment. I cannot divulge details of this treatment because it is confidential; details were not divulged to me either. Suffice it to say that the treatment was successful. This is the 11th case where infusion chelation therapy is applied successfully on hepatitis.

[This piece was formerly a part of a long Hub, “Possible causes of fever in toddlers; why fever is a welcome warning.” However, I feel concerned about the victims of dengue fever that the message I wish to convey might be lost or muted in a long article. This is the reason why I decided to make it a separate Hub.]
New entries as of June 6, 2013

Dr. Estuita, MD has now treated 11 hepa B victims. I elaborate more on this topic in my Hub “A medical breakthrough in the control of hepatitis B by chelation therapy.” That means the hepa V viron has a positive charge because EDTA has a negative charge (see diagram). EDTA forms a chelate with the viron. Dr. Estuita told me he had treated a dengue patient by infusion chelation therapy. (More of this below).
EDTA claws on a virion forming a chelate that is ejected thru urine
The treacherous tandem

This is the partnership between the dengue virus and salmonella, a bacteria. Dengue virus parasitizes salmonella. That is why dengue virus is also called bacteriophage or phage for short. The dengue virus consists only of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and is a retrovirus. This phage needs DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that it gets from salmonella to multiply into millions (Uno, G. et al, Principles of Botany. 2001:307). In other words, the virus commandeers salmonella; new salmonella now have the virus in their cell that burst and infect neighboring cells.

To repeat, microbes double their population every 20 to 25 minutes. The host cells turn into virtual dengue virus because their chromosomes had incorporated virus genes. Hosts, the infected human cells, now double their population every 20 minutes.

The victim is doubly unlucky if he gets both dengue virus and salmonella together. His fever is caused by the two during the gestation period of three to five days. For the infection, doctors administer antibiotics. The fever may subside but recurs. Why? The antibiotics had countered the salmonella but left the dengue virus growing in population and is now wrecking havoc. Antibiotics cannot kill virus. The virus attack the blood platelets that decrease in population dramatically from, say 350,000 to 150,000 to 80,000. This platelet count signals an imminent bleeding. And some patients in fact bleed who need blood transfusion. Doctors take pains to watch the platelet count. Dengue virus also attack the macrophage that is supposed to protect the body. Worse, macrophages with a virus load. along with the blood, now distribute the virus to various parts of the body. If salmonella were not controlled the dengue virus becomes more virulent by sheer rapid increase in population.
Symptoms of Dengue
Symptoms of Dengue | Source

The cost of hospitalization, about two weeks or more, of a dengue fever patient is high that the poor could hardly afford it. And to think that they are the most vulnerable having to live with degraded environment exacerbated by climate change. Caring for the dengue fever patient is also traumatic especially if you find blood oozing from the rashes and stools, and blood coming out of the mouth or eyelids. Sometimes the patient coughs up sputum with blood, an indication that s/he has internal bleeding. You are dealing with a hemolytic dengue virus, if knowledge of if is any consolation.

A daughter of ours had been afflicted with dengue fever when she was in grade school. Fortunately she did not get the bleeding type. She was treated with vitamin C at 500 mg per dose.

It is high time to conduct researches on the application of chelation against the dengue virus, using a framework other than the germ theory of disease.

The dengue viron has a positive charge. EDTA. the chelating agent has a negative charge. These charges attract each other that bind with and remove the virus complex. The chelation process is unlike the familiar reversible reaction in chemistry. EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate); has six pinchers like a crab (Walker, M. MPD. The Miracle Healing Power of Chelation Therapy. 1984:19-21). These pinchers claw on the virus complex. The chelate, composed of virus complex and EDTA, is ejected from the body through the urine.

That is how EDTA works in chelating out lead from the body. EDTA has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in remedying lead poisoning. It has been found to work for other diseases and disorders as well (Cranton, E., MD. Bypassing Bypass. Updated second edition. 1995)
New entries as of Dec. 29,2014

Another mode by which vitamin C treats dengue is as follows: Vitamin C is a precursor of hydrogen peroxide mediated by superoxide dismutase, an enzyme (Dr. Mercola. Internet. Dec. 29,2014). Macrophage shoots the dengue virus with hydrogen peroxide.

To recall, inducible nitric oxide, a free radical, kills cancer cells. This was found in an experiment on mice involving recombinant DNA technology. The inducible nitric oxide synthase was delivered by a virus vector riding on an antibody to cancer cells. When inside the cancer cell, inducible nitric oxide synthase produces nitric oxide that kills the cancer cell.

Hydrogen peroxide is a reactive oxygen species that acts like a free radical. Macrophage shoots bacteria using free radicals like bullets (Cranton, E., MD. Bypassing Bypass. Updated second edition. 1995).

In the case of dengue virus, there is no need to deliver hydrogen peroxide to virus-infected cells by way of antibody. It is the macrophage, a component of the immune system, that shoots the virus directly using hydrogen peroxide as bullets.

Dengue fever – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prevention, Pictures

Dengue fever is a disease that is transferred via the bite of a striped Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is carrying the dengue virus.

Minor cases of dengue fever are characterized by high fever, rashes, and pain in the joints and muscles. Major instances of dengue fever, which includes the dangerous dengue hemorrhagic fever, can result in excessive bleeding, shock, unexpected reduction of blood pressure, and even fatalities.

Every year, dengue fever affects millions of individuals throughout the world. The condition is more common in Southeast Asia and parts of the Western Pacific. Of late, dengue fever cases have also become prevalent in the Caribbean and Latin America.

There is currently no vaccine for dengue fever. It is however possible to prevent the development and spread of the condition by reducing or eliminating mosquito habitats in those parts of planet where it is widespread.
Symptoms of dengue fever

A majority of the patients, particularly young kids and teenagers, do not elicit any symptoms during mild cases of dengue fever. It has been seen that the symptoms begin to form three or four days after the person gets bitten by an infected mosquito. The usual symptoms are:

High fever along with body temperatures that touch nearly 106 F or 41 C
Patients may experience pain in the muscles, bones, and joints
Vomiting and/or nausea
There may be pain in the back of the eyes
Rashes may occur throughout the body
Minor bleeding from the gums and nose may be noticed

Most patients recuperate from dengue fever after experiencing the symptoms for a week. In some cases, the symptoms can deteriorate and pose serious threat to the life of the patient. There may be injury of the blood vessels leading to leakage of blood. The number of platelets or clot-making cells may also reduce drastically. This can result in the following symptoms:

Key organs such as the lungs, liver, and the heart may face problems
Chronic vomiting
There may be bleeding beneath the skin, making it seem like bruises
The nose and mouth may elicit extensive bleeding
There may be severe pain in the abdominal area

How dengue fever affects the platelet count

The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a carrier of the dengue virus. The main effect of this virus in on the platelet count. In normal circumstances, a platelet remains in the body for five to ten days and the body replenishes the platelet quantity as and when required. The dengue fever virus destroys the body’s ability to make new blood platelets.

A healthy person will typically have a platelet count ranging between 150,000 and 250,000 per μl of blood. After an infection by the dengue virus, the platelet count in the bloodstream begins to fall. A platelet count of less than 100,000 per μl is an emergency situation requiring immediate medical attention. A platelet count of below 50,000 per μl is considered life-threatening.

It is also important to note that platelets are blood-clotting cells and any fall in their overall count can prevent the development of clots. This can then lead to internal as well as external bleeding, which is quite difficult to stop once it starts.
Causes of dengue fever

Dengue fever is caused due to the transmission of any one of the 4 types of dengue viruses. The viruses are transferred through the bite of an infected mosquito. Such infected mosquitoes can be found in the vicinity of human dwellings and the adjoining regions. A mosquito can also turn into a carrier of dengue virus after it bites an individual affected by dengue fever. This infected mosquito can then spread the disease when it bites other healthy people. A dengue epidemic is caused due to the unregulated growth of such infected mosquitoes.

After a patient has recuperated from dengue fever, he/she develops immunity towards it. However, the patient is still vulnerable to infection by the remaining three kinds of dengue viruses. When an individual contracts dengue fever for the second, third, or fourth time, he/she is more likely to develop the more severe form of dengue fever, i.e. dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Some risk factors which can increase the susceptibility to developing dengue fever are listed below:

Residents of the subtropical and tropical areas of the planet; particularly regions with increased risk like Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Pacific islands; are at greater risk to contracting the dengue virus. Travelling to these regions also increases the risk to developing dengue fever.
Patients, especially children, who have suffered from previous cases of dengue fever are more likely to develop the severe form of dengue fever.

Diagnosis of dengue fever

The signs and symptoms of dengue fever tend to mimic the symptoms of other conditions like leptospirosis,malaria, and typhoid fever, leading to confusion. Hence, diagnosis of dengue fever can be quite difficult.

The physician will ask about a patient’s travel and medical history. It is important to provide detailed information to the doctor. A few lab tests will also be conducted to detect the presence of dengue viruses.
Dengue fever: Treatment and prevention

There is no one particular treatment for dengue fever, doctors may recommend drinking lots of water to prevent vomiting and dehydration.
Acetaminophen can be useful to treat fever and body-ache. Pain killers like ibuprofen and aspirin should be avoided as they can elevate the risk to bleeding complications.

Severe cases warrant hospitalization, which include medical care, monitoring of blood pressure, intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration, and blood transfusion.

A dengue fever vaccine is currently in the developmental stages. People living or traveling to a region known as an endemic dengue fever area, can evade contracting the disease by taking precautionary measures to avoid getting bitten by infected mosquitoes.

The below listed guidelines will help you avoid getting bitten by dengue fever carrier mosquitoes:

Keep out the mosquitoes by staying in well-screened or air-conditioned rooms.
When visiting mosquito infested areas, wear long sleeved shirts and other protective apparels which limit the amount of exposed skin
Mosquitoes are plentiful during late evening, dawn, and dusk. Avoid the outdoors during these times
Use mosquito repellents. Decrease or destroy the mosquito habitats.

Complete Information On Dengue Fever With Treatment And Prevention

Dengue fever is a flu-like illness spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. One major difference, however, is that malaria is often eradicated in major cities, whereas dengue is often found in urban areas of developed tropical nations, including singapore, taiwan, indonesia, and brazil. Caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes of the genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae, each serotype is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which feeds during the day. The mosquito flourishes during rainy seasons but can breed in water-filled flower pots, plastic bags, and cans year round. One mosquito bite can inflict the disease. Dengue fever is common and may be increasing in Southeast Asia.

Dengue fever should not be confused with Dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is a separate disease and frequently deadly. An infected person cannot spread the infection to other persons but can be a source of dengue virus for mosquitoes for about 6 days. Dengue viral infections frequently are not apparent. Classic dengue primarily occurs in nonimmune, nonindigenous adults and children. All ages are susceptible. In endemic areas, a high prevalence of immunity in adults may limit outbreaks to children. Persons who were previously infected with one or more types of dengue virus are thought to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever if infected again. Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes. Traveling during periods of minimal mosquito activity can also be helpful.

Dengue fever is manifested by an abrupt onslaught of fever, with serious worry, muscle and multilateral pains and rashes. The dengue rash is characteristically sunny crimson petechiae and normally appears best on the lower limbs and the chest, in some patients, it spreads to wrap most of the system. There may too be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, sickness, vomiting or diarrhoea. The glands (lymph nodes) in the neck and groin are frequently bloated. Fever and new signs of dengue last for two to four days, followed by speedy fall in temperature with profuse perspiration. This precedes a period with natural temperature and a sense of welfare that lasts about a day. This kind of the disease normally occurs in children experiencing their second dengue transmission. It is sometimes deadly, particularly in children and inexperienced adults.

The diagnosis of dengue is usually made clinically. Because dengue is caused by a virus, there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to treat it. For typical dengue, the treatment is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is supportive therapy. Acetaminophen products are recommended for managing fever. Acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (such as ibuprofen) should be avoided because of their anticoagulant properties. For severe dengue symptoms, including shock and coma, early and aggressive emergency treatment with fluid and electrolyte replacement can be lifesaving. Supplementation with intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and significant concentration of the blood if the patient is unable to maintain oral intake. Patients should receive instead paracetamol preparations to deal with these symptoms if dengue is suspected.

What Is Dengue Fever And How Is It Treated?

Dengue fever is a flu-like illness spread by the bite of an infected mosquito.Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal, complication of dengue fever.

Dengue has been called the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease in terms of morbidity and mortality. Dengue fever is a benign acute febrile syndrome occurring in tropical regions. In a small proportion of cases, the virus causes increased vascular permeability that leads to a bleeding diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Secondary infection by a different dengue virus serotype has been confirmed as an important risk factor for the development of DHF.

Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics and Africa, and caused by four closely related virus serotypes of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae.

Dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by one of four closely related, but antigenically distinct, virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), of the genus Flavivirus. Infection with one of these serotypes provides immunity to only that serotype for life, so persons living in a dengue-endemic area can have more than one dengue infection during their lifetime.

Normal dengue fever is not that dangerous. The symptom-based treatment should be resorted to i.e., wet pads could be used if the temperature is high. Antidotes could be administered as per the necessity. Pain-killers should not be given to the patient of hemorrhagic dengue. Pain-killers tend to increase hemorrhage. Maintaining the water balance of the body and controlling the blood pressure of the patient is also necessary.
The only method of preventing dengue is controlling the mosquito infestation.

The mosquito causing dengue primarily breeds in man-made containers like metal drums, earthenware jars and other water storage jar. Proper solid waste disposal and improved water storage practices, including covering containers should be encouraged. Insecticides should used periodically. For travelers, going to affected areas, use of mosquito repellents is advised.

Mix 360 mg of Shunthi Churna with 125 mg of Hinguleshwar and now take this mixture at least 4 times daily, you may take with tea or hot water. If case the temperature of the patient rises beyond 104°F (40°C), then you may apply cold pad, on the forehead till the temperature subsides.
Prepare a Neem tonic, using leaves; apply in the body using warm damp cloth.

Dry raw turmeric roots under the sun and ground it into fine powder which can be an effective home remedy for German Measles. Mix ½ teaspoon of turmeric powder, a few drops of honey and bitter gourd leaf juice.

To get rid of mosquitoes: Drip 3 drops of geranium oil into a burner.
Another great Home remedy for German measles is Eggplant. Take ½-1 gm of egg plant seeds everyday for 3 days. Egg plant seeds are stimulant and they are effective in preventing measles contraction for 1 year.

Cool compresses on the forehead or even on the entire body can also help bring down a temperature. Keeping cool is good but you till have to sweat, sweating it out is best as lon as your body remains ata relitivly safe temperature.(103 F or 39.5 C is pretty high. )

West Nile Virus – The Simple Facts And The Cures

What is West Nile virus: It is a virus of the family ‘Flaviviridae’, found in numerous regions. Photographs from a high resolution electron microscope reveal the virus as spherical with a slightly bumpy surface but no projecting protein limbs. It has a resemblance in appearance to the ‘dengue fever’ virus.

What causes West Nile Virus: It mainly infects birds, but is also the cause of a number of conditions in humans and horses, and some other mammals. West Nile virus is a virus mainly transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito.

Symptoms Of West Nile Virus: In most people West Nile Virus, infection causes no symptoms to appear. In other people it causes flu-like symptoms known as West Nile Fever. The virus is able to pass the blood-brain barrier, and the most serious effects are inflammation of the brain, which can be fatal. Persons over 45 years of age are at higher risk of developing severe disease, the symptoms of which include fever, nausea, stiff neck and changes in mental status. In rare cases patients develop sudden paralysis.

Treatment For West Nile Virus: Morpholino antisense oligos have shown some activity against West Nile Virus in experiments, and are currently in clinical trial stage as a West Nial Virus treatment.

West Nile Virus Prevention: The best way to prevent West Nile Virus is to stop the mosquitoes from biting you. There are a lot of things you can do to avoid the mosquitos, such as: Spend less time outdoors between dusk to dawn. Empty standing water from bird baths, pails or other containers. If you have a small pond or water garden, add fish, since fish will eat the mosquito larvae. Add a fountain or waterfall, since moving water deters mosquitoes. Make sure your open windows are covered securely with screens, screens that have no holes or other openings in them.

What Is Dengue Fever Exactly?

Dengue Fever is no joke. It is unforgiving, life-threatening (it has already killed thousands), and most of the times all it takes is a single bite from the right mosquito.

A single bite. And the right mosquito in question is the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti found in most tropical countries such as India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Brazil, Malaysia, etc. The Aedes aegypti is a particularly nasty one because it chooses no time in which to strike. In theory, they bite at dusk and dawn, but in practice, they can bite anytime of the day.

How do you know if you have Dengue Fever? Watch out for these symptoms:

1. High fever which lasts from 2 to 7 days, up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit or 40.5 degrees Celsius

2. Severe headache

3. Retro-orbital pain (or pain behind the eye)

4. Muscle aches and pains

5. Severe joint pains (Dengue fever is also known as breakbone fever.)

6. Enlarged lymph nodes

7. General weakness

8. Nausea and Vomiting

9. and the classic Hemorrhagic rash.

This rash is characterized by bright red pinpoints known as “petechiae”. It may spread all over the body. Patients with Dengue fever may also cough up or vomit bits of congealed blood, and may even ooze blood out of various orifices of the body including eyes, nose, mouth, and ears.

This is why Dengue fever is more properly called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.

First identified in 1779, Dengue fever up to now cannot be prevented by a vaccine. Likewise, there are no drugs that offer a cure except for supportive therapy. It is crucial then that at the onset of fever and rash, people are advised to consult a physician right away to curb the progress of the disease.

Supportive therapy for Dengue fever includes oral rehydration, platelet transfusion, intravenous fluids, and close monitoring of the patient’s vital signs.

Also, since there is no cure to the dengue virus yet, the only way to address the issue is to target the breeding places of mosquitoes to curtail their spread. As we all know, mosquitoes lay their eggs in stagnant water (Aedes aegypti has been known to favor clean water).

Preventive Ways to Stop Dengue Fever

1. Clean up your backyard.

2. Check for stagnant water, including flower vases, pails, cans, bins, tires, aquariums, puddles, etc. Replace the water in vases regularly, empty the cans and keep them upside down.

3. Buy a mosquito-repellant lotion for you and your family.

4. Opt for long sleeves and pants and, if possible, even socks.

5. If you’re swift, kill a mosquito and more. This is no time to be squeamish.

Just by following these steps and, of course, enjoining everyone in the community, you can stop the spread of Dengue fever. Actually you get to stop the spread of two diseases-Dengue and Malaria-so that’s two birds with one stone. No, we mean mosquitoes.

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Dengue Fever Explained

Fever Dengue (pronounced DEN-gee) is caused by viruses that are transmitted by mosquito bites. It is a severe illness that starts suddenly and usually follows a benevolent course with such symptoms as fever, headache, intense muscle and joint pains, exhaustion, lymphadenopathy (swollen glands) and the telltale rash. Dengue is characterized by the presence of what is called the “dengue triad” (headache, fever and rash). There are other signs of dengue like stark pain behind the eyes, gums that bleed, and redness in the palms of hands and soles of the feet. What is Dengue Fever?

Fever dengue strikes those who have low immunity levels. Fever dengue can be caused by any one of four types of the dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4 (the numbers reflect the order of discovery and have no relation to disease severity). An individual can be infected by at least two types, if not all four at different times during his or her life. However, an attack of a particular type of dengue produce lifetime immunity against that serotype which the patient had been exposed to.

There are other names for dengue such as “dandy fever” or “breakbone.” The name “breakbone” was derived because the victims of dengue have contortions because of the intense muscle and joint pains. The name “dandy fever” was derived from the slaves of the West Indies who had contracted fever dengue because of their gait and postures.

The more severe viral serotype of fever dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever. Signs include headache, rash, fever, petechiae (which are small purple or red blisters just under the skin), bleeding of the gums, blackened stools, and bruising that easily develop. Dengue hemorrhagic fever can be lethal and can develop into the most severe form of dengue which is dengue shock syndrome.

A person who has been bitten by the Aedes mosquito carrying the dengue virus will show signs and symptoms after 3 to 15 days (although it is more common from within 5 – 8 days). The person infected will first experience chills and then headaches or pain when they move their eyes, and lower back pain. The pain in the joints and muscle pain in the legs occur during the first hours. The body temperature will then rise to about 40 degrees Centigrade (or 104 degrees Fahrenheit). The heart rate will remain low (known as bradycardia) and so will the blood pressure (known as hypotension). There will be reddening of the eyes and then there will be a rash or flushing that comes over the face and then goes away. The lymph nodes (glands) in the groin and neck will be swollen.

Most of those who develop fever dengue completely recover within two weeks however there are some who may go through several weeks of feeling depressed and/or tired.

The virus is contracted from the bite of a striped mosquito known as the Aedes aegypti that has been previously bitten a dengue infected person. This mosquito flourishes during the rainy seasons or monsoons but can easily breed in water-filled potholes, drains, flower pots, old tires, plastic bags, and cans all year-round. Only one mosquito bite is enough to inflict the disease.

The dengue virus is not contagious and cannot spread directly from one individual to another. To spread, there must be a pathway that goes “person-to-mosquito-to-another-person”.

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Advice from Rentokil on how to control mosquitoes and flies after heavy rain

As Gauteng residents experience flash flooding due to heavy rainfall, Rentokil warns of the impact residual standing water can have on fly and mosquito infestations.
Advice from Rentokil on how to control mosquitoes and flies after heavy rain
Heavy rains in Gauteng this week have seen numerous car accidents, flooding on several roads and reports of lightning strikes. At the time of writing, provincial government has activated a disaster management centre to investigate the trail of destruction and continue with search operations.

As the waters recede over the next days and weeks, residents are going to be faced with another issue; that of residual standing water. Standing water may not seem like a huge concern in light of the damage caused by the flooding, but it has the potential to cause a significant longer-term problem; that of an increase in the fly and mosquito population.

Both flies and mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, and hot weather – such as Gauteng residents generally experience between October and March- increases the probability of a large scale infestation because larvae hatch, mature and reproduce at a much faster rate in the heat. Under optimal conditions, fly larvae can mature into adults in as little as four days!

Advice from Rentokil on how to control mosquitoes and flies after heavy rain
This is problematic because both mosquitoes and flies are known to spread disease. Flies carry diseases like malaria, dysentery, gastro-enteritis, typhoid fever, cholera, conjunctivitis, tuberculosis and diarrhoea. They also cause parasitic tapeworms in poultry and horses. Mosquitoes are just as bad, carrying infectious diseases from several different classes of microorganisms, including viruses and parasites. Mosquito-borne illnesses include malaria, West Nile virus, elephantiasis, dengue fever, yellow fever and zika virus.

Whilst there are many DIY options for flies and mosquitoes, most of them don’t fully resolve the problem. DIY solutions may be able to get rid of adult flies and mosquitoes, but the larvae and eggs are often left untouched, resulting in another infestation arising.

Mosquito and fly prevention tips:

If you are keen on getting rid of flies and mosquitoes yourself, there a couple of prevention tips you can enlist which have a proven track record of reducing the presence of both flies and mosquitoes. The most important of these is to eliminate any source of standing water around your home, so that you break the breeding cycle.

Remove any standing water from your garden; empty pots, buckets etc where rainwater may have accumulated
If you have a garden pond, think about adding some goldfish as they will eat fly and mosquito larvae.
Water tanks or jojo’s should be covered with a well- fitting lid.
Change the water in your pets dishes regularly
Maintain your gutter by removing old leaves which can cause blockages and the risk of standing water
Keep grass and weeds trimmed and under control
Inside, keep the air circulated using fans
Install fine mesh screens on doors and windows

More information on flies or mosquitoes and how to deal with insect problems can be found on Rentokil’s website. Visit us for information on pest control services for both residential and commercial properties.

About Rentokil-Initial South Africa: The Rentokil Initial group specialises in pest control, hygiene services and interior landscaping for businesses across the globe. Using leading-edge, environmentally-friendly technology, their experts deliver a wide range of tailored services to businesses of all kinds. Rentokil Initial South Africa has operations in all major business centres across the country.

SAB Foundation Social Innovation Awards, Disability Empowerment Awards winners announced

The annual SAB Foundation Social Innovation Awards and inaugural Disability Empowerment Awards 2016 were held in Sandton, late last week. In addition, the Foundation announced a new partnership with the Technology and Innovation Agency (TIA) that will see a multimillion-rand in-kind contribution to support the growth of local entrepreneurs and their innovations.
SAB Foundation Social Innovation Awards, Disability Empowerment Awards winners announced
This is in addition to the prize monies and business development support provided to SAB Foundation Social Innovation winners. They are recognised for their products and services, which are designed and developed for use by some of society’s most vulnerable individuals, notably women, the youth, people living with disabilities and people living in rural areas, the primary beneficiaries of the SAB Foundation

The partnership between the SAB Foundation and the TIA will see significant in-kind technical assistance in the form of expert man-hours, design and access to prototyping equipment; necessary for innovations shortlisted in the Social Innovation Awards 2016 to achieve market readiness.

“The TIA has shown great foresight and leadership in recognising the potential our innovators hold for others who otherwise would not have had the opportunity to access products and services that bring improvement to their lives. We are looking forward to working with our innovators and entrepreneurs and ensuring that they maximise the potential of TIA’s offering,” says Bridgit Evans, SAB Foundation manager.

Social Innovation 2016 Award Winners

1. LCERT or Low Cost Educational Robotics Toys is the R1.2m first place prizewinner in the sixth annual Social Innovation Awards. The low cost educational robotics toy kit is designed and developed to provide learners and educators with affordable access to educational resources in their STEM (Science, Technology, Education and Mathematics) classrooms. The kit consists of smart modules that may be connected to form electronic circuits, as well as programmed, using a Visual Programming Interface on a tablet or PC to create robots and other mechatronic systems.

2. Runner-up in the Social Innovation Awards category is DCP Cable Theft Prevention, awarded R600,000. The innovation is an overhead and underground system, which prevents the digging, cutting and pulling of electricity cables, and has successfully been piloted by the Moqhaka Local Municipality in Kroonstad in the Free State.

3. Joint third place winners with prize money of R400,000 each are MediCube – Smart Lockers and Lower Limb Prosthetic Solution. MediCube – Smart Lockers manages the cost-effective collection of chronic medication from a pick up point or local health facility. Lower Limb Prosthetic Solution manufactures high quality locally made cost-effective prosthetic socket and blade for lower limb amputees.

The 19 Social Innovation 2016 finalist innovations, shortlisted from 600 entries, encompass the health, disability, education, energy, water and sanitation and livelihoods and sustainable agriculture sectors. They demonstrated their ability to become commercial and scalable. This growth is further supported by the SAB Foundation, which provides the best innovations with a combination of financial investment and business support and mentorship.

Several development awards and seed grants were presented to finalist innovations (see below for full list)

Disability Empowerment Awards 2016 Winners:

The Disability Empowerment Awards was established in 2016 by the SAB Foundation in recognition of the increase in the number of innovations providing solutions for people with disabilities.

1. The dLala Positioner took first place winning R500,000. The product is designed for children with physical disabilities and manages their sitting, standing and lying posture over a 24-hour period. This helps them maintain joint motion for more healthy living.

2. In second place with R300,000 is I Love Coffee, an entirely deaf-run coffee shop where baristas are deaf or hard of hearing.

3. In third and fourth place respectively with R200,000 each, CookABLE, a product that enables disabled users to prepare food with just one hand, and Oasis Association Recycling Project, which recycles and processes waste and provides employment for youth and adults with disabilities.

Other awards categories:

Social Innovation Development Awards:

• Omniharvester, a fruit picking device that allows users to pick, prune and place fruit from tall trees all in one go – R300,000
• Paratrend V1, a double tubed wheelchair frame manufactured used generic components for cost effectiveness – R300,000
• The StarLab, a cost effect compact self-contained school mobile science laboratory suitable for rural and township under-resourced primary and secondary schools – R250,000

Social Innovation Seed Grant Award Winners (R150,000 each)

• Breast Cancer Therapeutics: next generation therapeutics to treat metastatic breast cancer and works by inhibiting the aromatisation reactions in order to form oestrogens that when overexpressed are associated with breast cancer.
• Paper Video: an educational online and offline platform that provides learners with access to experienced teachers who offer tutoring on basic concepts, techniques and exam revision
• The Feel Good Project: a self-sustainable social enterprise that provides youth with income generation opportunities and training in retail, garment repair and warehousing, enabled through upcycling discarded products from major fashion retailers and selling it at competitive prices
• GET-2-WORK: Transport solution for workers with disabilities and those with related impairments to commune to and from their places of work
• BiKoRepellent Fabric: a long lasting slow release mosquito repellent or insecticidal fabric for use in mitigating insect borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus
• mHealth: a digital medical device for community health workers equipped with a glucometer, NIBP machine, electronic scale, thermometer, pulse oximeter and spyrometer. Collects patient clinical data for medical doctors to access and provide advice
• Aqua-Cura Mobile Water Sterilisation: the combined steriliser and filter unit helps to destroy bacteria, viruses and hydro toxins without the use of chemicals
• MARTI TB Diagnostic: a portable hand-held diagnostic device equipped with disposable cartridges for use in rural areas for the diagnosis of TB
• Pour/Low Flush Toilet: full flush toilets combined with the logistical advantage of on-site pit toilets which do not need sewers or copious amounts of water for operation
• NH1-MSsp Water Security System: a water security system that pumps water to rural and farming communities using alternative energy sources
• Qbell: an in-hospital call-button designed for patients with reduced motor function
• Tuse: video and voice calls in areas with little to no signal made possible using wireless mesh networking technology

Disability Empowerment Seed Grant Award Winners (R75,000 each)

• The eBraille Project is an innovative technology that allows visually impaired individuals access a variety of online resources
• Training people who are deaf to be CCTV operators: CCTV operation provides hearing impaired individuals with the appropriate skills to become CCTV operators
• KineKapa provides interactive skills development tools accessible to people of differing abilities, allowing them to express themselves through music, sounds or animation
• Prison Narration Project produces indigenous language audio and braille titles for the blind and visually impaired people and narrated by Correctional Services inmates