Dengue fever is a flu-like illness spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. One major difference, however, is that malaria is often eradicated in major cities, whereas dengue is often found in urban areas of developed tropical nations, including singapore, taiwan, indonesia, and brazil. Caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes of the genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae, each serotype is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which feeds during the day. The mosquito flourishes during rainy seasons but can breed in water-filled flower pots, plastic bags, and cans year round. One mosquito bite can inflict the disease. Dengue fever is common and may be increasing in Southeast Asia.
Dengue fever should not be confused with Dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is a separate disease and frequently deadly. An infected person cannot spread the infection to other persons but can be a source of dengue virus for mosquitoes for about 6 days. Dengue viral infections frequently are not apparent. Classic dengue primarily occurs in nonimmune, nonindigenous adults and children. All ages are susceptible. In endemic areas, a high prevalence of immunity in adults may limit outbreaks to children. Persons who were previously infected with one or more types of dengue virus are thought to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever if infected again. Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes. Traveling during periods of minimal mosquito activity can also be helpful.
Dengue fever is manifested by an abrupt onslaught of fever, with serious worry, muscle and multilateral pains and rashes. The dengue rash is characteristically sunny crimson petechiae and normally appears best on the lower limbs and the chest, in some patients, it spreads to wrap most of the system. There may too be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, sickness, vomiting or diarrhoea. The glands (lymph nodes) in the neck and groin are frequently bloated. Fever and new signs of dengue last for two to four days, followed by speedy fall in temperature with profuse perspiration. This precedes a period with natural temperature and a sense of welfare that lasts about a day. This kind of the disease normally occurs in children experiencing their second dengue transmission. It is sometimes deadly, particularly in children and inexperienced adults.
The diagnosis of dengue is usually made clinically. Because dengue is caused by a virus, there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to treat it. For typical dengue, the treatment is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is supportive therapy. Acetaminophen products are recommended for managing fever. Acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (such as ibuprofen) should be avoided because of their anticoagulant properties. For severe dengue symptoms, including shock and coma, early and aggressive emergency treatment with fluid and electrolyte replacement can be lifesaving. Supplementation with intravenous fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and significant concentration of the blood if the patient is unable to maintain oral intake. Patients should receive instead paracetamol preparations to deal with these symptoms if dengue is suspected.